Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

An Evolution of the Pixel Embedding Techniques in Image Based Adaptive Steganography

Naresh Babu MM, Chakravarthy ASN, Ravindranath CC


The word “Steganography” was basically derived from the Greek words with the meaning “covered writing.” This paper presents some of the main adaptive image steganography approaches. Many algorithms have been presented; in almost all the algorithms the approach is to embed the secret data in the images. Here we are discussing about adaptive steganography which is based upon spatial domain and frequency domain with an additional layer of mathematical model. The embedding and extracting processes of the algorithms have been discussed
General Terms: Adaptive steganography, security, image processing

Keywords: Substitution techniques, human visual system (HVS), discrete cosine transform (DCT), integer wavelet transforms, BPCS (bit-plane complexity
steganography), adaptive least-significant-bit (LSB) substitution, pixel-value
differencing (PVD), image contrast; mod-4embedding, HVS features, leastsignificant- bit (LSB), adaptive pixel pair matching (APPM)


Full Text:



Snasel V, Platos J, El–Qawasmeh E. (Eds). ICDIPC 2011, Part I, CCIS 188. Springer–Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg; 2011; 406–18p.

Hussain Mehdi, Hussain Mureed. A survey of image steganography techniques. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology. May, 2013; 54.

Franz Elke, Schneidewind Antje. Adaptive steganography based on dithering. ACM MM&Sec’04, September, 2004, Magdeburg, Germany.

Santosh Arjun N, Negi, A. A high embedding capacity approach to adaptive steganography. 1st International Conference on Digital Information Management. Dec. 2006; 6–6: 525–30p.

Agaian Sos S, Cherukuri Ravindranath C, Sifuentes, Ronnie. A new secure adaptive steganographic algorithm using Fibonacci numbers. Region 5 Conference 2006 IEEE. 7–9 April 2006; 125–9p.

Qingzhong Li, Chen Yu, Dongsheng Chu. A robust image hiding method based on sign embedding and fuzzy classification. WCICA 2006. The Sixth World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation. 2006; 2: 10050–3p.

Raja KB, Sindhu S, Mahalakshmi TD, et al. Robust image adaptive steganography using integer wavelets. Communication Systems Software and Middleware and Workshops, 2008.

Jin–Suk Kang, Yonghee You, Mee Young Sung. Steganography using block–based adaptive threshold.. 22nd International Symposium on Computer and information sciences. 7–9 Nov. 2007; 1–7p.

Cheng–Hsing Yang, Chi–Yao Weng, Shiuh–Jeng Wang, et al. Adaptive data hiding in edge areas of images with spatial

lsb domain systems. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. Sept. 2008; 3(3): 488–97p.

Sajedi H, Jamzad M. Adaptive steganography method based on contourlet transform. 9th International Conference on Signal Processing, 2008. ICSP 2008. 26–29 Oct. 2008; 745–8p.

Cheng–Hung Chuang, Lin T.C.–I. Adaptive steganography–based optical color image cryptosystems. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2009. ISCAS 2009. 24–27 May 2009; 1669–72p.

Refregier P, Javidi B. Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding. Optics Letters. 1995; 20: 767–769, 199p.

Ramezani M, Ghaemmaghami S. Adaptive image steganography with Mod–4 embedding using image contrast. 7th IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC). 2010; 1–4p.

Yi–zhen Chen, Zhi Han, Shu–ping Li, et al. An adaptive steganography algorithm based on block sensitivity vectors using HVS features. 3rd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 2010. 16–18 Oct. 2010; 3: 1151–5p

Weiqi Luo, Fangjun Huang, Jiwu Huang. Edge adaptive image steganography based on LSB matching revisited. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. June 2010; 5(2): 201–14p.

Zanganeh O, Ibrahim S. Image steganography based on adaptive optimal embedding. 5th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology (ICCIT), 2010. Nov. 30 2010–Dec. 2 2010; 600–5p.

Wang Ran–Zan, et al. Image hiding by optimal LSB substitutionand genetic algorithm [J]. Pattern Recognition. 2001; 34(3): 671–83p. 18. Lifang Yu, Yao Zhao, Rongrong Ni, et al. Improved adaptive LSB steganography based on chaos and genetic algorithm. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing. 2010.

Sathisha N, Sreedharan Swetha, Ujwal R, et al. Adaptive steganography based on covariance and dct information technology and mobile communication. Communications in Computer and Information Science. 2011; 147: 273–6p.

Geetha S, Kabilan V, Chockalingam SP, et al. Varying radix numeral system based adaptive image steganography. Information Processing Letters. 2011; 111: 792–7p.

Wien Hong, Tung–Shou Chen. A novel data embedding method using adaptive pixel pair matching. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. Feb. 2012; 7(1): 176–84p.

Sabeti Vajiheh, Samavi Shadrokh, Shirani Shahram. An adaptive LSB matching steganography based on octonary complexity measure. Multimed Tools Appl. 2013; 64: 777–93p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.