Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS
<p align="center"><strong>Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures (RRDMS)</strong></p><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong>ISSN: 2394-1979</strong></p><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong><em><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Editor-in-Chief</span></em></strong></p><p align="center"><strong>Dr. Hari Mohan Srivastava</strong></p><p align="center">Professor, Department of Mathematics and Statistics,</p><p align="center">University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3R4, Canada.</p><p align="center"><strong>E-mail: </strong>harimsri@math.uvic.ca</p><p align="center"> </p><p align="center"> </p><p align="center">Click <strong><a href="/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=about&op=editorialTeam">here</a> </strong>for complete Editorial Board</p><p align="center"> </p><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong><br /></strong></p><p align="center"><strong>Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF):</strong> 6.141</p><p> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures (RRDMS) </strong>is a journal focused towards the rapid publication of fundamental research papers on all areas of Discrete Mathematical Structures. It's a triannual journal, started in 2014.</p><p> </p><p align="center"> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Journal DOI no</strong>.: 10.37591/ RRDMS</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Focus and Scope Cover</strong></p><ul><li>Mathematical induction</li><li>logic and Boolean algebra</li><li>set theory</li><li>relations and functions</li><li>sequences and series</li><li>algorithms and theory of computation</li><li>number theory</li><li>matrix theory</li><li>induction and recursion</li><li>counting and discrete probability</li><li>graph theory (trees)</li><li>Calculus of finite differences, discrete calculus or discrete analysis</li><li>Game theory, decision theory, utility theory, social choice theory</li><li>Discrete analogs of continuous mathematics</li><li>Hybrid discrete and continuous mathematics<strong></strong></li></ul><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong><br /></strong></p><p><strong>Readership:</strong> Graduate, Postgraduate, Research Scholar, Faculties, Institutions, and in IT Companies.</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong><br /></strong></p><p><strong>Indexing: </strong>The Journal is index in DRJI, Google Scholar</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Submission of Paper: </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>All contributions to the journal are rigorously refereed and are selected on the basis of quality and originality of the work. The journal publishes the most significant new research papers or any other original contribution in the form of reviews and reports on new concepts in all areas pertaining to its scope and research being done in the world, thus ensuring its scientific priority and significance.</p><p> </p><p>Manuscripts are invited from academicians, students, research scholars and faculties for publication consideration.</p><p> </p><p>Papers are accepted for editorial consideration through email info@stmjournals.com or <span>deeksha.sharma</span>@celnet.in</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><br /> <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Abbreviation: </strong><strong>RRDMS</strong><em></em></p><p><em><br /> <br /> </em><strong></strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Frequency</strong>: Three issues per year</p><p> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong><a href="/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=about&op=editorialPolicies#peerReviewProcess">Peer Reviewed Policy</a></strong></p><p> </p><p><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=about&op=editorialTeam">Editorial Board</a></span></strong><strong></strong></p><p> </p><p><strong><a href="http://stmjournals.com/pdf/Author-Guidelines-stmjournals.pdf">Instructions to Authors</a></strong></p><p> </p><p><strong>Publisher:</strong> STM Journals A division of: Consortium eLearning Network Private Ltd</p><p><strong>Address:</strong> A-118, 1<sup>st</sup> Floor, Sector-63, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201301, India</p><p><strong>Phone no.:</strong> 0120-4781-240/ Email: <span>deeksha.sharma</span>@celnet.in</p><p> </p>en-USResearch & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures2394-1979<p align="center"><strong>Declaration and Copyright Transfer Form</strong></p><p align="center">(to be completed by authors)</p><p>I/ We, the undersigned author(s) of the submitted manuscript, hereby declare, that the above manuscript which is submitted for publication in the STM Journals(s), is <span>not</span> published already in part or whole (except in the form of abstract) in any journal or magazine for private or public circulation, and, is <strong><span>not</span></strong> under consideration of publication elsewhere.</p><ul><li>I/We will not withdraw the manuscript after 1 week of submission as I have read the Author Guidelines and will adhere to the guidelines.</li><li>I/We Author(s ) have niether given nor will give this manuscript elsewhere for publishing after submitting in STM Journal(s).</li><li>I/ We have read the original version of the manuscript and am/ are responsible for the thought contents embodied in it. The work dealt in the manuscript is my/ our own, and my/ our individual contribution to this work is significant enough to qualify for authorship.</li><li> I/We also agree to the authorship of the article in the following order:</li></ul><p>Author’s name </p><p> </p><p>1. ________________</p><p>2. ________________</p><p>3. ________________</p><p>4. ________________</p><table width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td valign="top" width="5%"><p align="center"> </p></td><td valign="top" width="95%"><p>We Author(s) tick this box and would request you to consider it as our signature as we agree to the terms of this Copyright Notice, which will apply to this submission if and when it is published by this journal.</p></td></tr></tbody></table>Research Frame work of Missing Data Analysis using Mathematical Models
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2617
<p align="center"><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong><em></em></p><p><em>This article deals with providing an overall framework of missing data analysis using mathematical models. Mathematical models serves at large for missing data imputation. Several algorithms in machine learning techniques like Mean, Median, Standard Deviation, Regression and Naïve Bayesian classifier use Mathematical models for analysis. The performance of above mathematical models has been compared by using correlation statistics analysis gives the imputed values are positively related or negatively related or not related with each other. To evaluate the performance of missing values can be measured by using nonparametric approach to inference on multivariate categorical data, which set the bounds to the data imputation. Based upon the performance of nonparametric approach to inference on multivariate categorical data, the imputed missing values are increasing or decreasing or a bounded monotonic sequence of finite limit and also analyzing that every bounded sequence of missing values has a convergent subsequence. Recognizing the above as a specific Poisson process probability gives an easy and exact way of constructing a practical decision indicator. This comes at the cost of requiring the appropriate boundedness conditions. To evaluate the performance, the standard machine learning repository dataset can be used. This article focuses primarily on how to implement Mathematical models to perform imputation of missing values.</em></p><p><strong><em> </em></strong></p><p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Imputation, Knowledge Transfer, missing data, Mathematical Models, Boundedness conditions, data patterns, multivariate data, multiple imputation.</em></p>A. Finny BelwinA. Linda Sherin2021-01-182021-01-187Downhill Zagreb Polynomials of Graphs
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2586
<p align="center"><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong></p><p><em>In a number of applied and theoretical environments, graph polynomials and their roots have emerged. To deeply explore counting sequences connected to different graph parameters, graph polynomials have been introduced as generating polynomials. In addition, there has been a great deal of recent interest in graph polynomials. The first, second and forgotten downhill Zagreb indices are defined as </em><em>and </em><em>.</em><em> In this paper, we define and study the first, second and forgotten downhill Zagreb polynomials, we compute the exact values of some standard families of graphs. Finally, the first, second and forgotten Zagreb polynomials for firefly graph, Graphene and honeycomb network are obtained with 3D graphical representation.</em></p><p><em> </em></p><p><strong><em>AMS Subject Classification:</em></strong><em> 2010: 05C07, 05C30, 05C76.</em></p><p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Zagreb downhill polynomial, Downhill Zagreb indices.</em></p>Bashair Al- AhmadiAnwar SalehWafa Al- Shammakh2021-01-182021-01-187New Number Sequences Obtained with Grouping of Fibonacci Numbers
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2594
<p align="center"><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong><em></em></p><p><em>The relations of the sum and difference of two Fibonacci numbers, in which the difference of subscripts is even, was given by Koshy. In this study, the relations of the sum and difference of two Fibonacci numbers, in which is the difference of subscripts is odd, is introduced by using the generating functions. Similar results are given for Lucas numbers. Also, two new family of Fibonacci numbers are obtained.</em></p><p><strong><em> </em></strong></p><p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Binet Formula, Fibonacci sequence, the generalized Fibonacci sequence, Generating functions, Lucas sequence.</em></p>İnan DurukanEngin Özkan2021-01-162021-01-167An Atlas of Vertex Degree Polynomials of Graphs of Order at Most Six
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2580
<p align="center"><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong></p><p><em>The vertex degree polynomial of a graph G of order n is defined as V D(G, x) = </em><em> </em><em>å</em><em><sub>uv</sub></em><em><sub>∈</sub></em><em><sub>E(G)</sub></em><em> d(u)x<sup>d(v)</sup> where d(u) is the degree of the vertex u [5]. We call the roots of a vertex degree polynomial of a graph the vertex degree roots of that graph. In this article, we compute the vertex degree polynomial of all graphs of order less than or equal six and their roots and present them in tables.</em></p><p><strong><em> </em></strong></p><p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Adjacent vertex, Vertex degree polynomial, Vertex degree root. Mathematics Subject Classification:</em></p>Hanan AhmedAnwar AlwardiRuby Salestina M.2021-01-162021-01-167New Recurrence Relations for Tribonacci Sequence and Generalized Tribonacci Sequence
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2616
<p align="center"><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong><em></em></p><p><em>Tribonacci numbers are placed on the corners of polygons clockwise with each corner receiving a term. Then, it is argued whether there is a relationship among the numbers in the same corners. It is shown to be able to find m<sup>th </sup>term corresponding to the corner A<sub>k </sub>in an n-gon by a relation:</em></p><p><em>where, </em> <em> is a Tribonaccisequence and </em> <em> is a Tribonacci- Lucas sequence. The relation is proved by using a binet formula obtained for </em> <em>. It is also argued whether the relation corrects all Generalized Tribonacci sequences by changing the beginning terms. Moreover, it is shown that m<sup>th</sup> term corresponding to the corner A<sub>k</sub> in an n-gon can be found by using the following relation:</em></p><p align="center"><strong><em> </em></strong></p><p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Binet formula, Fibonacci Sequences,<strong> </strong>n-gon, Tribonacci Numbers, Tribonacci-Lucas Numbers </em></p>Engin ÖZKANSongül ÇELİKİnan DURUKAN2021-01-162021-01-167Abstract Fuzzy Function
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2579
<p>The grading of the set is studied by L. A. Zadeh in 1965. The set is defined by the membership function. Fuzzy set and fuzzy logic are the two domain defined as the discrete mathematical structure. Its discreteness is associated with the fundamental axioms of the classical set theory and its operation. This paper defines the fuzzy function and its applications.</p><p>Keywords: Fuzzy Set, Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy Function, Set Theory, Membership Function.</p><p>Cite this Article: Amita Telang, Sunil Kumar Kashyap. Abstract Fuzzy Function. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(2): 10–13p.</p>Amita TelangSunil Kumar Kashyap2020-08-212020-08-217An Application of Fractional Calculus in L-R and C-R Circuit
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2536
<p>In this paper, we proposed a Fractional differential equation for the electrical L-R and C-R Circuit and obtained the solution in the form of Mittag-Leffler function.</p><p>Keywords: Circuit analysis, L-R and C-R circuit, Fractional differential equation, Riemann-Liouville Fractional derivative, Laplace transform, Inverse Laplace transform.</p><p>Mathematical Subject Classification: -26A33, 33E12, 44A10</p><p>Cite this Article: Laxmi Morya, Manoj Sharma, Rajshree Mishra. An Application of Fractional Calculus in L-R andC-R Circuit. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(2): 14–17p.</p>Laxmi MoryaManoj SharmaRajshree Mishra2020-08-212020-08-217An Ecology Equation
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2534
<p>The conservation of ecology is reviewed by an equation. Ecology is studied in this paper via mathematics. This paper presents an equation of ecology. The objective of this paper is to solve the problems of nature by the mathematical concept. The mathematical transformation of natural phenomenon for analyzing the hidden rules of the nature is the key objective of this paper. The theory of sets, function and its application based results are presented in this paper.</p><p>Keywords: Nature, Conservation, Equation, Ecology, Function, Set, Transformation.</p><p>Cite this Article: Sunil Kumar Kashyap. An Ecology Equation. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(2): 18–20p.</p>Sunil Kumar Kashyap2020-08-212020-08-217PKC based on DLP
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2535
<p>We propose a new representation of Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) as and use this to design a Public Key Cryptosystem (PKC). The problem to find the index of the primitive element of the cyclic group is referred as the DLP. This paper sets the discrete structure of the finite field for introducing the securer PKC than the existed.</p><p>Key Words: DLP, PKC, Cyclic Group, Primitive Element, Finite Field.</p><p>Cite this Article: Sunil Kumar Kashyap, Birendra Kumar Sharma, Amitabh Banerjee. PKC based on DLP: Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(2): 28–30p.</p>Sunil Kumar KashyapBirendra Kumar SharmaAmitabh Banerjee2020-08-212020-08-217On Searching the New Chemical Element by Prime Numbers
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2533
<p>This paper presents a direction for searching the new chemical element by prime number. Every chemical element is defined by atomic number and weight. These comprised with the set of natural numbers. The prime number is the subset of natural number. We define the new mapping for chemical element and prime number in this paper. Beryllium is taken as an example to prove the proposed theory.</p><p>Keywords: Chemical Element, Prime Number, Natural Number, Atomic Number, Atomic Weight, Beryllium.</p><p>Cite this Article: Sunil Kumar Kashyap, Vikas Kumar Jain. On Searching the New Chemical Element by Prime Numbers. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(2):21–23p.</p>Sunil Kumar KashyapVikas Kumar Jain2020-07-312020-07-317Prevention of Spreading COVID-19 by Using a Mathematical Expression and controlling suggestion A Review
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2490
<p>COVID-19 that is a strain of coronavirus first broke out in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has since spreading in various countries.we observed that it is very tough time for everyone.COVID-19 is an infectious disease which is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.It affects the people through different ways.COVID-19 is very risky for older age people and for pre-existing medical condition peoples. This review paper is prepared for the prediction of COVID-19 and for preventing.Main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough and complexity in breathing. For stopping this virus we can follow the following precautions like wash your hands frequently, make social distance, do not touch your eyes and nose, and not visit anywhere without any emergency and cover your mouth by mask. In this review paper a mathematical expression is used for the obstruction of COVID-19 and the main goal of this paper is save yourself and protect others. It is very tough time for all because we fighting an invisible enemy.</p><p>Keywords: COVID-19,Mathematical expression, Probability, coronavirus, data set.</p><p>Cite this Article: Manju Rani, Puja Rani. Prevention of Spreading COVID-19 by Using a Mathematical Expression and Controlling Suggestion A Review. Research& Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(2): 6–9p.</p>Manju RaniPuja Rani2020-07-032020-07-037Is the Universe an Illusion?: A review article shedding light upon one of the mind boggling paradoxes
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2467
<p>We use the Russell’s paradox to dive into the philosophical aspect of life that mathematically supports the philosophical statement “We are all just a thought”. Just as the wind carries the fragrance of its source, so does this article. We mention how the Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory came into existence and also its axioms (two of them in detail). We have also mentioned two other paradoxes, which are similar to the Russell’s Paradox. These ‘simple-statement’ paradoxes provide a clear path to understand the Russell’s paradox. Though, they are not directly derived from the ‘most-argued’ Russell’s paradox, but are mere interpretations of the same. A view of these paradoxes provides clarity over the statement of the Russell’s Paradox.</p><p>Keywords: Paradox, Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory, Axiom of Extension, Axiom of Specification, Principle of Bivalence.</p><p>Cite this Article: Parul Khanna, V. Vijai. Is the Universe an Illusion?: A Review Article Shedding light Upon one of the Mind Boggling Paradoxes. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(2): 1–5p.</p>Parul KhannaDr. V. Vijai2020-06-292020-06-297Natural Frequency of Plate by Using Rayleigh Ritz Method with Varying Thickness and Thermal Effect
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2391
<p>Plate systems had been intensively used in a diffusion of engineering disciplines concerning civil engineering, aerospace, construction zone, nuclear flowers, electricity flora, marine engineering. It may additionally use for production of wings and tails of the plane, rockets and missiles etc. A through expertise of their vibrational characteristics in conjunction with specific thermal conditions is of extremely good significance to engineers and architects ensuring reliability in layout procedure. In this paper, the elliptical plate fabric is believed to be homogeneous, additionally temperature and thickness in x and y guidelines. To discover the result as frequency parameter, Rayleigh Ritz method is implemented. Frequency is calculated for 2 modes exclusive set of cost of thermal gradient and taper constant.</p><p>Keywords: Vibration, visco-elastic, elliptical plate, taper constant, Rayleigh Ritz</p><p>Cite this Article Preeti Prashar, Ashish Kumar Sharma. Natural Frequency of Plate by Using Rayleigh Ritz Method with Varying Thickness and Thermal Effect. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(1): 28–33p.</p>Preeti PrasharAshish Kumar Sharma2020-05-042020-05-047Continuity
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2454
<p><em>Let us assume there exists a Clairaut function. K.O. Harris (2005) and Z.N. Gauss et al. (2002) address the connectedness of globally admissible equations under the additional assumption that |</em><em>ƴ</em><em>|</em><em>⊂</em><em>D. We show that</em> <em>λ</em><em> is geometric. Unfortunately, we cannot assume that |L|<</em><em>ε</em><em>. It is not yet known whether Dirichlet's conjecture is false in the context of Hippocrates, j-embedded algebras, although K.O. Harris (2005) and C. Anderson (2001) does address the issue of admissibility.</em></p><p><em>Keywords:</em><em> </em><em>Boolean, Unbounded, Limit, Lp, Separability, Housdorrf, Indivisibility, Tensor</em></p><p>Cite this Article</p><p>Olcay Akman, Z. Landau. Continuity. <em>Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures</em>. 2020; 7(1): 23–27p.</p>Olcay AkmanZ. Landau2020-05-042020-05-047Common Fixed-Point Theorems Satisfying Integral Type Contractive Conditions
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2455
<p>In this paper, we establish common fixed-point theorems using a contractive condition of integral type. Also, we prove common fixed-point theorems, from a smaller class of compatible continuous mappings to larger class of weakly compatible mappings without using continuity. In the present paper, we establish common fixed-point result for four mappings satisfying a more general contractive condition of integral type and using the recent concept of weak compatible maps.</p><p>Keywords: compatible mapping, weakly compatible mappings, Fuzzy metric space, fixed point</p><p>Cite this Article Sandeep Kumar, Mohd. Nafees Siddiqui. Common Fixed-Point Theorems Satisfying Integral Type Contractive Conditions. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(1): 16–22p.</p>Sandeep KumarMohd. Nafees Siddiqui2020-05-042020-05-047Certain Results Involving Ramanujan’s Theta Functions
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2390
<p>In this present work, our main aim is to obtain “certain results involving Ramanujan’s theta functions”. In this paper, we have evaluated Ramanujan’s theta functions by making use of certain modular equations due to Ramanujan. Using these values of theta functions, we have also evaluated Ramanujan’s cubic continued fraction and Ramanujan–Weber class invariants Gn and gn.</p><p>Keywords: Ramanujan’s theta functions, modular equations, Ramanujan–Weber class invariants, Ramanujan’s cubic continued fraction, Modular identities</p><p>Cite this Article Mohd. Nafees Siddiqui, Sandeep Kumar. Certain Results Involving Ramanujan’s Theta Functions. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(1): 6–15p.</p>Mohd. Nafees SiddiquiSandeep Kumar2020-05-042020-05-047A Study on the Derivations of Two-dimensional Geometry
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2452
<p>Two-dimensional geometry is the study of conic sections. The conic section includes figures like circle, hyperbola, ellipse, parabola, semi circles etc. The study of two-dimensional geometry has many formulas related to Area, perimeter. However, the derivation of the particular geometrical figures are not studied due to their complexity. This paper focuses on how to reduce the complex nature of derivations and provides them in new and easy form. In addition, this paper explores how to use trigonometrical concepts in easy form for the derivation of any particular two-dimensional figure.</p><p>Keywords: Two-dimensional geometry, trigonometrical concept, conic section, equilateral triangle, curves</p><p>Cite this Article Khushboo Malhotra, Shallu Gupta. A Study on the Derivations of Two-dimensional Geometry. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2020; 7(1): 1–5p.</p>Khushboo MalhotraShallu Gupta2020-05-042020-05-047Dirichlet Average of Hyper-geometric Kiran Function and Fractional Derivative
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2371
<p>Abstract: In this paper, first of all define a new function namely Hyper-geometric Kiran Function which is generalization of Hyper-geometric Function then a relation between Dirichlet average of Hyper-geometric Kiran function and fractional derivative is established.</p><p>Mathematics Subject Classification: 26A33, 33A30, 33A25 and 83C99.</p><p>Keywords and Phrases: Dirichlet average, Hyper-geometric Kiran function Hyper-geometric function, fractional derivative and Fractional calculus operators</p><p>Cite this Article: Manoj Sharma, Kiran Sharma. Dirichlet Average of Hyper-geometric Kiran Function and Fractional Derivative. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2019; 6(3): 29–31p.</p>Manoj SharmaKiran Sharma2020-01-102020-01-107Subtract Divisor Cordial Labeling of Ring Sum of a Graphs
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2351
<p>Abstract: A subtract divisor cordial labeling of a graph G with vertex set is a bijection f from V to {1, 2,…, |V|} such that an edge is assigned the label 1 if 2 divides (f(u) – f(v)) and 0 otherwise, then number of edges labeled with 0 and the number of edges labeled with 1 differ by at most 1. A graph with a subtract divisor cordial labeling is called a subtract divisor cordial graph. In this paper, I have Proved that ring sum of cycle with star graph, cycle with one chord with star graph, cycle with twin chords with star graph and cycle with triangle with star graphs are subtract divisor cordial graph. I also proved that ring sum of wheel with star graph, flower graph with star graph, gear graph with star graph and path graph with star graph are subtract divisor cordial graphs. Further I proved that shell graph with star graph are subtract divisor cordial graphs. And in last I proved that double fan with star graphs are subtract divisor cordial graph.</p><p>AMS Subject classification number: 05C78</p><p>Keywords: Subtract divisor cordial labeling, ring sum, shell graph, double fan, gear graph</p><p>Cite this Article: A. H. Rokad. Subtract Divisor Cordial Labeling of Ring Sum of a Graphs. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2019; 6(3): 23–28p.</p>A H Rokad2020-01-102020-01-107k-Fibonacci Polynomials in The Family of Fibonacci Numbers
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2347
<p>Abstract: In this study, we define k-Fibonacci Polynomials by using terms of a new family of Fibonacci numbers given by Mikkawy and Sogabe. We compare the polynomials with known Fibonacci polynomial. Furthermore, we show the relationship between Pascal’s triangle and the coefficient of the k-Fibonacci polynomials. We give some important properties of the polynomial.</p><p>2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 11B39.</p><p>Keywords: Fibonacci Numbers, Fibonacci Polynomials, Pascal’s triangle, k-Fibonacci polynomials, The derivative of the k-Fibonacci polynomial</p><p>Cite this Article: Engin Özkan, Merve Taştan, k-Fibonacci Polynomials in The Family of Fibonacci Numbers. Research & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2019; 6(3): 19–22p.</p>Engin ÖzkanMerve Taştan2020-01-102020-01-107Generalized Yang-Fourier Transforms by using K-Function to Heat Conduction in a Semi-infinite Fractal Bar
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2361
<p>The main objective of present research paper to solve one-dimensional fractal heat-conduction differential equation problem in a fractal semi-infinite bar has been developed by local fractional calculus employing the analytical Generalized Yang-Fourier transforms method.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Fractal bar, heat-conduction equation, Generalized Yang-Fourier transforms, Yang-Fourier transforms, local fractional calculus, K-Function</p><p><strong>Cite this Article</strong></p><p>Manoj Sharma, Kiran Sharma. Generalized Yang-Fourier Transforms by using K-Function to Heat Conduction in a Semi-Infinite Fractal Bar. Research<em> & Reviews: Discrete Mathematical Structures</em>. 2019; 6(3): 13–18p.<strong></strong></p>Manoj SharmaKiran Sharma2020-01-092020-01-097Coxeter Dihedral Symmetric Tetrahedrons with Triangle Groups: Euclidean, Spherical and Hyperbolic
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2127
<p>Abstract: In this article, we have classified the Coxeter Dihedral Symmetric (CDS) tetrahedrons with triangle groups: Euclidean, Spherical and Hyperbolic. We have calculated the gram spectrums of these CDS tetrahedrons with triangle groups: Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic, and finally studied their existence in the spaces: Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic.</p><p>MSC 2010 Codes: 51M05, 05C50, 15A45, 15A42, 05C69.</p><p>Keywords: Coxeter Dihedral Symmetric Tetrahedrons, Triangle groups, gram matrix, spectrum, Euclidean, eigen values</p><p>Cite this Article: Pranab Kalita. Coxeter Dihedral Symmetric Tetrahedrons with Triangle Groups: Euclidean, Spherical and Hyperbolic. Research & Reviews Discrete Mathematical Structures. 2019; 6(3): 1–12p.</p>Pranab Kalita2020-01-092020-01-097Zagreb Degree Eccentricity Indices of Graphs
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2019
<p align="center"><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong></p><p><em>Let G be a connected graph, the first Zagreb index M<sub>1</sub>(G) of G is defined as </em><em></em><em>The second Zagreb index M<sub>2</sub>(G) of G is defined as In this paper we introduce first and second Zagreb degree eccentricity indices. Further, the first Zagreb degree eccentricity index of join, Cartesian product, tensor product, corona product of two graphs are computed.</em></p><p><em> </em></p><p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: Zagreb indices, Eccentricity, Degree, Zagreb degree eccentricity indices.</em></p><p> </p><p><strong>Cite this Article</strong></p><p>Padmapriya P., Veena Mathad. Zagreb Degree Eccentricity Indices of Graphs. <em>Research & Reviews Discrete Mathematical Structures<strong>.</strong></em><strong> </strong><strong>2019; 6(2): 59–69p.</strong><strong></strong></p>Padmapriya P.Veena Mathad2019-08-192019-08-197Primitive Idempotents and Weight Distributions of Irreducible Cyclic Codes of Length 5l^m
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2125
<p align="center"><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong></p><p><em>Let </em> <em>be a finite field with q elements such that</em> <em>and </em><em>gcd </em> <em> = </em><em>1</em><em>, where</em> <em> is a prime. In this paper, we give all primitive idempotents in a ring</em> <em>[x]</em> <em>. </em><em>We give the weight distributions of all irreducible cyclic codes of length </em> <em>over</em> <em>.</em></p><p><em> </em></p><p class="Style"><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Primitive Idempotents, Cyclotomic Cosets, Cyclic Codes.</em></p><p class="Style"> </p><p><strong>Cite this Article</strong></p><p>Sunil Kumar, Manju Pruthi, Rahul. Primitive Idempotents and Weight Distributions of Irreducible Cyclic Codes of Length . <em>Research & Reviews Discrete Mathematical Structures<strong>.</strong></em><strong> 2019; 6(2): 49–58p.</strong><strong></strong></p>Sunil KumarManju PruthiRahul .2019-08-192019-08-197On b-Coloring Parameters of Some Classes of Graphs
http://computers.stmjournals.com/index.php?journal=RRDMS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2042
<p align="center"><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong></p><p><em>Vertex coloring has always been a topic of interest. Motivated by the studies on </em><em>-chromatic mean and variance of some standard graphs, in this paper, we obtain few results for </em><em>-chromatic and </em><em>-chromatic mean and variance of some cycle related graph classes. Here, Vertex coloring of a graph </em><em> is taken to be the random experiment. Discrete random variable </em><em> for this random experiment is the color of randomly chosen vertex of </em><em>. </em></p><p><strong><em>Mathematics Subject Classification</em></strong><em>: 05C15, 05C75. </em></p><p> </p><p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: </em><em>-coloring, coloring mean, coloring variance, </em><em>-chromatic mean, </em><em>-chromatic variance.</em></p><p><strong>Cite this Article</strong></p><p>M R Raksha, P Hithavarshini, N K Sudev, C. Dominic. On -Coloring Parameters of Some Classes of Graphs. <em>Research & Reviews Discrete Mathematical Structures</em><strong><em>.</em></strong><strong> 2019; 6(2): 41–48p.</strong><strong></strong></p>M R RakshaP HithavarshiniN K SudevC. Dominic2019-08-192019-08-197