Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Implementation of Audio Watermarking Technique by Spreaded Echo in Time Domain

Mahendra Pandy, Shivajyoti Kumari


Now a day, enormous amount of information is produced, stored and dispersed in digitized form. To endow with real time coverage with sequences of high quality audio, still images and video, mass communication media has turned online. This increases the possibility of large-scale unauthorized copying which may lead to undermine the music, film, book and software industries. These concerns over protecting copyright have triggered significant research to find ways to hide copyright messages and serial number in digital media. In this paper, we present audio watermarking technique that utilized in which time spreading is done using (PN) sequence as a confidential key, overcomes the problem of less security which prevails in most of the echo hiding techniques. The imperceptibility and the robustness of time-spread watermarking based on echo of audio signals are tested using various attacks.


audio watermarking technique, echo hiding techniques, protecting copyright.

Full Text:



Nishimura R, Ko BS, Suzuki Y. “Time-spread echo method for digital audio watermarking.” IEEE Trans. Multimedia. Apr. 2005; 7(2): 212–21p.

Bender W, Morimoto N, Gruhl D, Lu A. “Techniques for data hiding.” IBM Syst. J. 1996; 35: 3–4p.

Swanson MD, Tewfik AH, Zhu B, Boney L. “Robust audio watermarking using perceptual masking.” Signal Process. 1998; 66(3): 337–55p.

Oh HJ, Hong JW, Seok W, Youn DH. “New echo embedding technique for robust and imperceptible audio watermarking.” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Processing. 2001: 1341–4p.

Czerwinski S, Fromm R, Hodes T. Digital music distribution and audio watermarking (IS 219). University of California – Berkeley, 1999.

Kirovski D, Malvar H. “Robust spread-spectrum audio watermarking.” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Processing. 2001: 1345–8p.

Wang H, Nishimura R, Suzuki Y, Miao L. “Fuzzy self-adaptive digital audio watermarking based on time-spread echo hiding.” Appl. Acoust. 2008; 69: 868–74p.

Löytynoja M, Cvejic N, Seppänen T. “Audio Protection with Removable Watermarking.” Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing. ICICS, art. no. 4449635, 2007.

Proakis J, Salehi M. Digital Communications, McGraw-Hill. 2008; 729–43p.

Wang XY, Niu PP, Yang HY. “A Robust Digital Audio Watermarking Based On Statistics Characteristics.” Pattern Recognition. ISSN 0031-3203. Nov. 2009; 42(11): 3057–64p.

Yeh C, Kuo C. “Digital Watermarking through Quasi mArrays.” Proc. IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems, Taipei, Taiwan. Oct 1999: 456–61p.

Cedric T, Adi R, Mcloughlin I. “Data concealment in audio using a non-linear frequency distribution of PRBS coded data and frequency-domain LSB insertion.” Proceedings of IEEE Region 10 International Conference on Electrical and Electronic Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sept 2000; 50: 275–8p.

Mobasseri B. “Direct sequence watermarking of digital video using m-frames.” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Chicago, IL. 1998: 399–403p.

Cvejic N, Seppänen T. “Increasing robustness of LSB audio steganography by reduced distortion LSB coding.” J of Univ Comput Sci. 2005; 11(1): 56–65p.

Lemma AN, Aprea J, Oomen W, Kerkhof LVD. “A Temporal Domain Audio Watermarking Technique.” IEEE Transaction on Signal Processing. Apr 2003; 51: 1088–97p.

Gruhl D, Lu A, Bender W. “Echo hiding.” Proceedings of the 1st Information Hiding Workshop LNCS. 1996; 1174: 295–315p.

Bogert BP, Healy MJR, Tukey JW. “The Quefrency Alanysis of Time Series for Echoes: Cepstrum, Pseudo-Autocovariance, Cross-cepstrum and Saphe Cracking.” Proceedings of the Symposium on Time Series Analysis,M. Rosenblatt, Wiley N.Y. 1963: 209–43p.

Xu C, Wu J, Sun Q, Xin K. “Applications of digital watermarking technology in audio signals.” J. Audio Eng. Soc. 1999; 47(10).

Lee SK, Ho YS. “Digital audio watermarking in the cepstrum domain.” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. 2000; 46(3): 744–50p.

Siahpoush S, Erfani Y. “Robust audio watermarking using improved TS echo hiding.” Digit. Signal Process. 2009; 19: 809–14p.

Cvejic N, Seppanen T, Keskinarkaus A. “Audio watermarking using M-sequences and temporal masking.” Proc. IEEE Workshop Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics. 2001; 227–30p.

Yardymcy Y, Cetin AE, Ansari R. “Data hiding in speech using phase coding.” Proc. Eurospeech 97. 1997; 3: 1679–82p.

Xiang Y, Peng D, Natgunanathan I, Zhou W. “Effective pseudonoise sequence and decoding function for imperceptibility and robustness enhancement in time-Spread echo-based audio watermarking.” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia. Feb 2011; 13(1).


  • There are currently no refbacks.