An Evolution of the Pixel Embedding Techniques in Image Based Adaptive Steganography

Naresh Babu MM, Chakravarthy ASN, Ravindranath CC


The word “Steganography” was basically derived from the Greek words with the meaning “covered writing.” This paper presents some of the main adaptive image steganography approaches. Many algorithms have been presented; in almost all the algorithms the approach is to embed the secret data in the images. Here we are discussing about adaptive steganography which is based upon spatial domain and frequency domain with an additional layer of mathematical model. The embedding and extracting processes of the algorithms have been discussed
General Terms: Adaptive steganography, security, image processing

Keywords: Substitution techniques, human visual system (HVS), discrete cosine transform (DCT), integer wavelet transforms, BPCS (bit-plane complexity
steganography), adaptive least-significant-bit (LSB) substitution, pixel-value
differencing (PVD), image contrast; mod-4embedding, HVS features, leastsignificant- bit (LSB), adaptive pixel pair matching (APPM)


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